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Class : 11
Unit : Economics

What are the means of transportation? Explain it.

Ans : There are various means of transportation in the world. The modern means of transportation include surface transport, air transport, sea-route etc. The main means of transportation used in Nepal are surface transport and air transport. (i) Surface transport :- Surface transport includes road transport, railway transport, ropeway transport, trolley bus, cable car etc. a) Road transport:- Due to the rugged physiography of Nepal, road transport gets an important place here. It is the major means of transport in Nepal. But in 2007 B.S. there was only 376 km of the road including 5 km of blacktopped. There was altogether 23,209 km road up to FY 2011. But by the end of 2012, 24,389 km road has been constructed. Major highways of Nepal with their respective lengths are given in the table: S.N. Highway Length (Km) i. Mahendra Highway 1024 ii. Tribhuwan Rajpath 190 iii. Prithvi Highway 174 iv. Siddhartha Highway 184 v. Araniko Highway 114 b) Railway transport:- The first railway line in Nepal was constructed in 1929 between Amlekgunj and Raxaul, which was known as Nepal Government Railway. Janakpur-Jaynagar railway which is 52 km long, constructed in 1936. c) Ropeway (Cable car):- The transportation system which is operated from electricity is called Ropeway. In 1964, a new Kathmandu- Hetauda ropeway was begun. Now this ropeway system is not in operation. During the 9th plan period as per the government policy of promoting private sector participation in the transport sector, a cable car project had beeb undertaken by the private sector from Kuringhat to Manakamana. (ii) Air transpor:- Air transport started in Nepal on a regular basis in 1953 A.D. with three old aircraft which belonged to an Indian company. The air transport system was developed in the country with the establishment of Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation (RNAC) in 1958 A.D. Tribhuwan Intenational Airport having its initial runway length of 6,600 feet was constructed with American assistance. Modern equipment of air traffic control RADAR has been installed with the assistance of Japan in 1998 A.D. Since, Nepal is a mountainous country, it faces many difficulties to develop road facility to all parts of the country. Therefore, air transport is the only alternative facilities to all parts of the country. At present, Nepal has 51 airports including one international airport in Kathmandu. A total of 120 helipads has been constructed in the country.
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