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Class : 11
Unit : Economics

Discuss the characteristics of Nepalese agriculture.

Ans : The characteristics of Nepalese agriculture are explained below: i) Subsistence farming:- Most of the Nepalese farmers carry out their agricultural occupation for their survival and livelihood. There is very less commercialization of agriculture. Agriculture in most areas is operated with traditional method and tools. This results low production per unit of land. ii) Food crops predominance:- Food crops are dominant in Nepalese agriculture. For about 76% of total cultivated land is given to food crops and only 24% in cash crops. iii) Traditional farming practice:- As we know, farmers in Nepal seems to follow agricultural occupation for subsistence farming still uses of Halo, Kodalo , old seeds and method used by for fathers. This is a major cause for low agricultural productivity in Nepal. iv) Unequal distribution of landholdings:- The distribution of land in Nepal is unequal. About 92% are small farmers and 8% are medium and large farmers. Most of the irrigated land belongs to rich farmers while most of the small farmers are lacking irrigation facilities. Due to this fact, small farmers are practicing subsistence farming and rich farmers are only doing commercial farming. v) Low productivity:- Due to use of inferior quality seeds, traditional method of farming, lack of irrigation facilities, low level of education in farmers etc. As resulted lower agricultural productivity in Nepal. vi) Small size of landholding:- The average size of land has been estimated to be 0.96 hectare. About 53% of total number of farm families have less than 0.5 hectare land. Such type of small land is not appropriate for business purpose farming. As a result agriculture is carried on subsistence basis. vii) Disguised unemployment:- Agriculture provides only seasonal employment in Nepal. People are not employed all the year round. Due to seasonal employment, there is problem of disguised unemployment. The reason for disguised unemployment is growing population. viii) Geographic variation:- The agricultural practices pattern are different in different part of the country due to geographical variation. Plains:- Rice, Wheat, Maize, Oilseed, Jute, Sugarcane. Hills:- Maize, Tea, Cardamom ( इलायची) Mountains:- Herbs, Medicinal plants ix) Monsoon best agriculture:- Agriculture in Nepal is dependent on monsoon. Irrigation is the lifeblood for agriculture about 54% of total cultivable land is able to get irrigation facilities. And about 46% depends upon monsoon season. x) Duel ownership of land:- Duel ownership of land is an important feature of Nepalese agriculture. Land owners and tenants both are eligible for ownership of land. In dual ownership land, the poor people cultivate the land and rich class people enjoy the benefits without any force.
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