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Class : 11
Unit : Economics


Explain the major indicators of human development.

Ans : Human development is the process that helps to make living standard of human beings better. It is the development of overall situation such as health, education, sanitation, life expectancy, income etc. The main objective of human development is to produce physically, mentally, economically and socially healthy men power. Some of the major indicators of human development are explained below: i. Life expectancy at birth:- Life expectancy at birth is defined as the average number of year that a new born child expect to live. It depends upon the infant mortality rate and age of death. If infant mortality rate is high and age of death is low, the life expectancy will be low. Life expectancy can be regarded as the indicator of long life which depends upon level of nutrition, health services and living standard. ii. Education attainment:- It includes literacy rate, school enrollment rate and average age of schooling. This helps to increase the efficiency of human beings. The literacy rate gives an indication of the ability to re & write. iii. Per capita income:- It is another important indicator of human development. Higher the per capita income, higher will be the human development and vice versa. Per capita income can be calculated by dividing National Income divided size of population. iv. Fulfillment of basic needs:- When people are able to fulfill basic needs, it is an indicator of human development. Basic needs include food, clothing, shelter, education and health service. Higher the basic need fulfill, higher will be the level of human development. v. Material mortality rate:- Material mortality rate refers to the number of mother who die during the birth of child. Lower the mortality rate, higher will be the birth rate. vi. Human happiness:- Happiness of people is also an important indicator to measure the human development. According to this indicator, more happiness means more human development and vice-versa. The human happiness is determined by per capita income. Life expectancy, social security, freedom etc.
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